sst2

sst2_120- Australian migration

120
The first inhabitants in Australia were the ancestors of the present indigenous people. Whether or several successive waves and distinct people is still subject to academic debate, as is its timing. The minimum widely accepted time frame places presence of humans in Australia at 40,000 to 43,000 years before supported by others is 60,000 to 70,000 years BP. In any event, this migration was achieved during the closing stages of the Pleistocene epoch, these first migrations involved one timing. The minimum widely present, while the upper range when sea levels were typically much lower than they are today. Repeated episodes of extended glaciation resulted in decreases of sea levels by some 100150 m. The continental coastline therefore extended much further out into the Timor Sea than it does today, and Australia and New Guinea formed a single landmass (known as Sahul), connected by an extensive land bridge across the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait. The ancestral Australian Aboriginal people were thus long established and continued to develop, diversify and settle through much of the continent. As the sea levels again rose at the terminus of the most recent glacial period some 10,000 years ago the Australian continent once more became a separated landmass. However, the newly formed 150 km wide Torres Strait with its chain of islands still provided the means for cultural contact and trade between New Guinea and the northern Cape York Peninsula During the 1970s and 1980s around 120,000 southern Asian refugees migrated to Australia. During that twenty years, Australia first began to adopt a policy of what Minister of Immigration A1 Grass by termed “multiculturalism”. In 2004-05, Australia accepted 123,000 new settlers, 19 a 40% increase over the past 10 years. The largest number of immigrants (40,000 in 200405) moved to Sydney. The majority of immigrants came from Asia, led by China and India.
Main points:
Australian migration
The first inhabitants in Australia
Ancestors of (the present) indigenous people
Extension of the continental coastline
Forming a single landmass
The establishment and development of the ancestral Australian Aboriginal people
Diversifying and settling through (much of) the continent
Providing the means for cultural contact and trade
Adopting a policy
Multiculturalism

Other points:
The first migrations
Australia and New Guinea
Rising sea levels
Becoming a separated landmass
Southern Asian refugees
The largest number of immigrant
Moving to Sidney

Sample answer:
The lecture was about Australian migration, which comprised the first inhabitants in Australia. The spokesperson described the ancestors of indigenous people, and essences of extension of the continental coastline emphasized the significance of forming a single landmass. Ultimately, although both Diversifying and settling through the continent and means of cultural contact and trade could be inferred evidently from adopting a policy, impacts of multiculturalism were acknowledged. (66)

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