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Some people lie through their teeth. Some lie about their teeth. Our early human cousins seem to have lied with their teeth. Or they at least misled scientists into first thinking that their diet was something other than it was. See, one of our East African relatives had chompers that looked so powerful, scientists nicknamed[...]

RWFIB-636

Our sense of cinema as a site of commercial entertainment can be traced back to the Lumière brothers. In December 1895 they attracted a fee-paying public in Paris to sit and watch flickering images on an illuminated screen. The commercial Pandora’s Box they opened was to blossom in a few years into a world cinema

RWFIB-635

I use the word civilization now for the first time because before the Bronze Age there is nothing that we would define as civilization. Civilization involves the establishment of permanent dwelling areas that we call cities as opposed to villages. Agricultural villages will have existed all over the place in the late Stone Age, in the[...]

RWFIB-634

Of all those whose names are associated with the invention of photography, Louis Daguerre is perhaps the most famous. He started out as a student of architecture, but by the age of sixteen was working as a stage designer and his work in this field, especially his handling of lighting effects, brought him to fame. His

RWFIB-633

Light is usually described as a form of energy and it is indeed a kind of electromagnetic energy, not much different from radio waves, television signals, heat, and X-rays. All of these are made up of waves that spread, bend, interfere with one another, and react with obstacles in their path, rather like waves in water. A physicist[...]

RWFIB-632

When it comes to low-cost housing, architects are hardly ever involved. About 98% of the market is built without architects and the result is usually rows of clones of a building, regardless of whether they are practical for an area or not. Developers alone, without the input of an architect, do not see the big picture[...]

RWFIB-631

Every day, on television, on the radio, and in the newspapers, we see, hear, and read about leaders and politicians making decisions that are clearly wrong-headed and that seem to us, the horrified watchers, listeners, and readers, counter-productive. To be reasonably impartial about such blunders, we must try to put aside for the moment how the decision[...]

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This MPhil introduces students from a wide variety of academic, business and political backgrounds to the traditions, methods, and state-of-the-art research that shape an advanced analysis of human society. The MPhil is an eleven-month course designed for those who wish to go on to do doctoral research or equally for those who simply want to

RWFIB-629

A rule of thumb for distinguishing butterflies from moths in this country is to examine the antennae or feelers, although, when comparing Lepidoptera worldwide, this technique is not to be relied on. Generally, especially among those native to the UK, butterflies have clubbed feelers, whereas moths can have feelers of various kinds other than clubbed. There are[...]

RWFIB-628

Since Austria sits at a high elevation and spends a quarter of the year under the snow, it should come as no surprise that heating is a matter of considerable importance in the country. What may be surprising, however, is that Vienna—a grand imperial city of music, art, and history—actually boasts a museum dedicated[...]